Version 1.0, completed 03/31/08 by Kelli Anderson
Using AMNH #32884 as an example image that needs to be digitized:
First, search Disktracker to ensure that we don't already have the image(s) scanned.1.) SEARCH DISKTRACKER
After launching Disktracker, hit (Command + F) or go to Search > Find to launch search input field.2.) Assess Results
Disktracker will indicate "no results" if that image number does not appear on any of the disks.
results do appear, click on one or all to see on which disk they
fall. A prefix of ai=archival image, sf=service file, and rb=rare
book. (Note that "sc" indicates only special collections on the
disks, and will not be helpful n locating the disk in the
drawers.) For more information on the contents of the drawers,
refer to "Contents of the Special Collections filing Cabinets."3.) Retrieve and Verify/Correct Image
If the image wasn't found, then it will need to be scanned. If
the image was found and the scan is in compliance with the standards as
specified in this document, proceed to correct it (step 3.)1.) Clean and Prepare
Clean the scanner bed at lest once a week with Windex wipes.
Ensure glass is completely dry before setting a negative on the
bed. Only use the horsehair brush to remove dust from the
negatives by gently sweeping it across the front and back of the
negative. Always turn on the scanner before launching the Epson
Negatives should always be
scanned emulsion-side down (facing glass.) To determine which
side is the emulsion-side, hold the negative perpendicular to a light
source and locate the side that appears to be more matte. This is
the emulsion side. Eradicate dust on both sides of the negative
and the scanner glass with the horsehair brush before placing the
negative on the scanner bed. Plastic film negatives should be
placed directly on the scanner glass. If curling occurs, use the
pane of anti-newton ring glass to flatten it. Glass plate
negatives should always be placed atop the anti-newton ring glass and
not directly on the scanner bed glass, which scratches easily.
3.) Make Selection and Correct Exposure
|2.) Set Scan Settings In Epson Scan, choose these settings:|
Usually this will be "Film (with Film Area Guide.)" If scanning
several 35mm negatives or slides, it is advantageous to use one of the
plastic negative holders. In this rare case, the setting "Film (with
holder)" should be selected.
Film Type: This will usually be "B&W Negative Film" — change as needed.
Image Type: "16-bit Grayscale" for back and white images and "48-bit Color" for color images.
Scanning Quality: Always choose "Best."
Hit "Preview button at bottom to Preview image before scanning.
Make a selection just within the bounds of the image to be scanned (excluding the negative edge.)
"Auto Exposure" button at bottom left of panel. This will bring
the image into the correct tonal ballpark — although the image is
typically a bit over-saturated and has a bit too much contrast.
Small tweaks can be made using the "Image Adjustment" sliders.
Exposure Fine-tuning Hit the "Image Adjustment" button to launch
adjustment sliders. (It lives to the right of the "Auto Exposure"
Exposure" almost always leave the image with too much contrast and
saturation. Normally, I need to turn down the contrast
and then compensate for the highlights by increasing the brightness.
Ensure that you are capturing the full range of tones present in the original negative — and that the darkest darks and
the lightest lights are not disappearing. In general, it is better to
err on the side of too little contrast (flatness) in this step than to
5.) Set Resolution Resolution/Image Size: resolution and file size (MB) have a
directly proportional relationship (>res =>MB.) Resolution
should be adjusted until the correct file size (MB) is reflected. (This
can be approximate.)
larger the physical negative, the more information that negative can
hold. Subsequently, larger physical negatives should be scanned
at larger file sizes (MB.) The idea is to capture all of the
information held on a negative, but not more (doing so would waste
space on the server.)
Recommended file size (based on Nara's guidelines -- they list guidelines for color only.):
|Color Images: ||If these color images were converted to Grayscale in Photoshop, they would |
be roughly 1/3 of the color scanned size, which translates to:
|17 MB |
|6.) Uncheck Unsharp Mask
Ensure that "Unsharp Mask" is NOT selected. We will have a chance
to sharpen images with a higher degree of control in Photoshop.|
|7.) Make Selection Adjust the selection area to include the entire image, including a
comfortable margin of the unexposed negative as well (to ensure all
edges of the photographic content are intact.) |
Be sure to include the edged/perimeter of the glass plate if the image is on glass.
most efficient way to readjust the selection is to click and drag
opposite corners. Dragging the bottom right corner will enable
simultaneous adjustment to the bottom and righthand margin.
8.) File Name/Location Hit Scan, The "File Save Settings" window will automatically pop up.
the file folder location for this image by clicking on the "Choose"
button (this setting will be remembered between scans — so if you are
scanning a batch to the same folder, it will not need to be
file names will always be numbers — named according to the image's AMNH
negative number. The "Start Number" for the File Nae must always
be exactly 3 digits. therefore, if the AMNH negative number is 6
digits long, the first "Prefix" box gets the first 3 digits. If
the AMNH negative number is 5 digits long, the "Prefix box" gets the
first 2 digits.
The "Start Number" box automatically
advances +1 with every scan. There fore, if consecutive AMNG
negative numbers are being scanned, the file name does not need to be
retyped/updated following each scan.
Image format should always be set to TIFF.
scan will automatically add a zero if no prefix is entered.
However, the database system will reject any image that starts with a
zero. Therefore, if you are scanning 3-digit image numbers, be
sure to manually remove the zero prefix prior to upload.
2.) Correct tone
|1.) PREPARE Since negatives are scanned emulsion side-down, all
images will need to be flipped horizontally. Once flipped, no more
flipping should be done — only rotating.|
the crop tool to simultaneously fine-tune the cropping and the rotation
of the image. Be sure to preserve a border of at least 3% of the
total image dimension around the perimeter pf the negative (or glass
plate) to keep edge information intact.
(and then color if applicable.)
1. Try Auto-levels (command + L and then choose Auto" and assess the results, fine-tuning accordingly.
2.) Correct for anomalies (light leaks, very uneven lighting) using adjustment layers and then flatten those layers.
3.) If image has too much contrast, adjust accordingly, using the "Brightness/Contrast" sliders.
Determine what area of the tonal range needs more definition.
Generally, it will be the lightest lights and the darkest darks, which
can be corrected using the "Shadow/Highlight" tool (use very
conservatively — bring out as much information as possible without
excessive flattening.) If the mid-tonal-rang needs more
distribution, adjust the curves (command + M.0 The tonal range of most
images are improved with a slight s-curve.
Correct color by launching "Color Balance" (command + B.) I you are
working from color slide film (positive film) check your colors against
the original on the light table. Often positive film will turn
red with age, so be wary of this variation. Images captured from
scanners are usually over-saturated. Compensate y launching the
"He/Saturation"slider (command + U.)3.) Sharpen
in to view the image 1:1 and launch "Unsharp Mask" window (useful to
assign a custom key command to this one.) For most images at this
resolution, a radius of 1.3 pixels is appropriate. Adjust slider
until you see a slight (not dramatic) sharpening (it is helpful to be
looking at an area that has the finest detail and highest contrast, as
these areas tend to "over"- sharpen first.) Be conservative in
sharpening, it is irreversible.4.) Spot-tone
most efficient tool for quickly eliminating small spots (due to dust,
scratches, conservation issues, or in-camera debris) is the
Spot-Healing tool, set t about 30 px. The Spot Haling tool works
well except for the occasional problem near the edges. If the
Spot Healing Brush is not working for a particular area, switch over to
the clone stamp, which offers a higher degree of cloning control.
What to correct and what not to correct…
generally adjust my zoom to 50% and adjust all distracting. highly
visible defects. All dust and scratches are repaired with two
a.) plentiful dust/dirt around edges of image
frame. If they do not interfere with the contet/focus of the
image and are too plentiful/dense to efficiently eradicate, they are
best left alone.
b.) large cracks that are difficult to
correct without overwriting some portion of the original image.
Small cracks and cracks that do not overlap important content are
always corrected, as this can be easily done without risk of
overwriting important details.*5.) Convert
Convert 16-bit/channel to 8-bit/channel.
* How to handle Newton Rings in scans:
rings occassionally appears on scans (generally on the newer film
negatives in areas of little detail — where the negatives are very
thin.) When this occurs, the negative may need to be rescanned,
depending on the severity of the rings and whether they overlap
• If the film is flat enough
to be rescanned without glass compressing it downward, rescan in this
manner. This should alleviate most of the Newton rings.
• If the moire patterns are minimal enough and confined to areas of less detail, they may be cloned out.
• Difficult moire patterns or patterns on important negatives should be outsourced for drum scanning.6.) Save
your .tif file is flattened before saving (has no layers.) Ensure
"Embed Color Profile: Adobe RGB (1998)" is selected on the save menu.
On the "Tiff Options" window, select "None" under Image Compression,
"interleaved" under Pixel Order and "IBM PC" under Byte Order.Calibrating Monitor with Eye-One software/hardware
NARA recommends calibrating the monitor once a month.
For the Eizo monitor, use the Eizo Colornavigator software in conjunction with the Eye-One hardware for calibration.
For all other monitored, use the Eye-One software.
1.) Choose 95K from pull-down menu.
2.) Choose 6500K in temperature slider.
3.) Gamma curve: 2.2.
4.) Initialize Eye-One by placing it down against the desk (or any other opaque surface) as instructed.
being uploaded onto the database, all images must be run through Adobe
Bridge to receive standard metadata that will travel with the
image. This metadata carries our standard copyright information
along with the image number for identification purposes.
that all images are flattened into one "Background" layer, are 8-bit
images, and have no zeros as prefixes. Otherwise, the database
will reject the image and it will not be uploaded.
Adobe Bridge. Within Bridge, you can navigate to the image(s)
that you will be uploading. Click through the file folders just
as you would in the Finder.
the images that need Metadata applied. Normally this will include
all images within a folder, so hit Command+A to select all or drag the
mouse over all of the images in the window.
Add our standard
copyright information by selecting Tools > "StandardAdmin."
For project specific Metadata (for instance for the METRO project),
select the standard metadata for that project.